(2) How to avoid looping on underside of fabric
A sewing machine's main function is to tie a knot with two strings of thread, over and over again. Usually we sew on two or more layers of fabric, and the knot sits between the two layers. However, a common issue people experience is thread looping on the underside of the fabric. This is caused by improper tension on the upper thread, most commonly due to a failure to thread the machine with the presser foot in the raised position. On your sewing machine, when the presser foot is in the raised position, the tension disks separate, allowing the thread to slide in between. When the presser foot is in the lowered position, the tension disks press together, and the thread cannot slide in between. Instead, the thread sits on top of the tension disks, and you will have no tension as you sew.
Think about tying your shoes. As you complete the various steps required to a tie a knot, your fingers keep constant pressure on the shoelaces, in order to keep the laces taut. Juxtapose this with children, who don't have the strength to keep the laces taut as they complete the shoe-tying steps. Even though they technically tie a knot, the knot will not be tight, and their shoes will inevitably come untied.Threading your machine with the presser foot in the lowered position instead of the raised position is like a child who cannot keep his shoelaces taut as he ties his shoes. The knot will be lose. The center will not hold. The bobbin case thread will overpower the top thread, causing loops on the underside of the fabric, and you will be sad.
New Year's Resolution for 2022: always always always thread your machine with the presser foot in the raised position.